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Syrup does not belong in a cold hive

I am getting so many questions about feeding syrup to winter bees that I decided to re-run this post from last year. Two points are especially important. First, it is the temperature of the syrup—not the temperature of the outside air—that governs whether the bees will drink the syrup. If you are having nights in the 30s or 40s, even if the daytime air spikes into the 60s, the syrup will not be warm enough. Sugar syrup has a high heat capacity, in other words it takes a lot of heat to warm it up.

Second, a container of syrup in your hive in cold weather will not harm the bees, but neither will it help them. The bees will just ignore it. But it is a waste of syrup, it will probably get moldy, and it can add moisture to a hive you are trying to keep dry. So why go there? Just give your winter bees fondant, hard candy, or granulated sugar instead.

So here’s the original post. I’ve added some related posts at the end. I particularly recommend “Physics for beekeepers: why bees can eat solid sugar in winter.”

Q: What should I feed my bees, sugar syrup, fondant, or hard candy?

A: Both liquid feed and solid feed have their place. Ideally, a solution of 2:1 syrup can be fed in the fall until the syrup itself reaches about 50°F (10°C). In colder temperatures solid feed (either fondant or hard candy) should be fed.

Q: I’ve heard that evaporating the syrup is particularly difficult for the bees in cold weather and this is why it shouldn’t be fed in winter. What do you think?

A: There are really two questions here.

Q1: Is it difficult for bees to evaporate water from syrup in winter?

A1: Absolutely. Cold air can hold less moisture than warm air, so in a cold hive no amount of fanning will evaporate the water from cold syrup. Think of dew. Dew forms on objects because the cold air of evening cannot hold all the moisture that warmer daytime air can hold. As the temperature drops, the water vapor literally falls out of the air and condenses on things. If winter air cannot hold the moisture from the syrup, it will not evaporate no matter how hard the bees work.

Q2: Is this why you shouldn’t feed syrup in winter?

A2: Most winter feed is not given to bees in the hopes they will store it, it is given to bees to keep them from starving should they run out of honey. A feeder full of cold syrup in your hive will not hurt your bees, but it won’t help them either. It just sits there because it is too cold for the bees to drink. And since they won’t drink it, it is not an emergency food source.

Q: Don’t bees need some water in order to eat hard candy and fondant?

A: Yes, a source of moisture is needed, but there is plenty of moisture in the hive for this. The moisture from bee respiration condenses on cool surfaces just like the dew. Since the fondant or candy is above the bees, the moisture from their respiration lands on it and condenses. Unless you live in the desert, damp air coming in from outside through the entrance may condense on the solid sugar as well. These sources provide plenty of water for the bees to consume solid sugar.

Q: Won’t bees leave the hive in dangerously cold temperatures in order to find water to dilute the fondant?

A: No. Bees don’t commit suicide. At any rate, the colder the air, the less water it will hold—and the more bee respiration will condense on the sugar.

Q: I’m confused. I thought 2:1 syrup was fed to bees in order to build up reserves for winter.

A: It is. But, as I mentioned above, the purpose of fall feed and the purpose of winter feed are different. A hearty feeding of 2:1 syrup in the fall while temperatures are still warm enough to evaporate it will be stored by the bees and used to increase their winter food supply. On the other hand, the purpose of winter feed is to keep bees that are low on stores from starving—they are not going to store their winter feed, they’re going to eat it.

Q: Should all bees be fed sugar?

A: No. Bees should eat honey. Sugar is fed when a colony hasn’t collected sufficient stores to make it until spring, when the beekeeper has over-harvested, or when the beekeeper needs to administer certain medicines, such as Fumagilin for Nosema diseases.

Q: So you’re not advocating solid sugar over liquid sugar?

A: I’m not advocating anything. I’m just trying to explain why the bees treat different feeds differently at different temperatures. Very specific physical properties govern how the world works. The more you know of these, the easier it is to make good management decisions.


Related posts:

Winter feeding of honey bees

Ten questions about Mountain Camp feeding

Sugar syrup ratios: which one to use

Why feed sugar syrup at all?




Thanks Rusty. I think it’s also the case that if syrup is fed too late in autumn, for instance during damp weather, the bees will have insufficient time to evaporate the excess water, and the syrup will be stored and could ferment. This could cause digestive problems such as dysentery for the bees when they come to feed on it later. Would you agree with this?


Yes, syrup stored too late might not get dried and capped, so it may ferment in the comb. A small amount of fermented honey wouldn’t hurt the colony, but large amounts would not be good. I don’t know if there is a direct link to dysentery (there might be, I’m not sure) but in any case, bees can get intoxicated on it which is not in their best interest.


I really appreciate this post in such a timely manner as well. There is a lot of misinformation out there, especially amongst new beekeepers just trying to keep their hives alive. I for one promptly made a sugar cake after trolling the internet for a recipe. I couldn’t find one on this website. Is there one? And where does one get pollen substitute without ordering on the internet?



I was sure I had recipes posted, but I can’t find them either (except for one: Hard Candy with Protein Supplement). I will try to fix that in the next couple of days, for both sugar cakes and pollen substitute. Sorry for the inconvenience.


OK, I ‘ll bite. I *do* live in the desert. Albuquerque to be exact. I am getting ready to get new bees this spring after losing a hive that had done well elsewhere but was moved to my place last year. My former beekeeper had to quit so the girls’ fate is in my hands. Can you comment on the moisture issue as it affects their ability to use supplemental sugars? I am concerned that there is not enough water in our environment during our usually dry winters, and wonder how to make sure they have enough water without having to forage much. Any info – or pointers on where to find it – that relates actual inches of rainfall to supplemental water needs would be awesomely helpful. (I live on an irrigation ditch so once the agricultural season starts we are good). Thanks so much. Awesome site you have here, I am learning a lot and loving the pro earth vibe!



Most of the water they use for dissolving hard sugar is water vapor from their respiration that lands on the sugar and condenses. The water in their bodies usually comes from the honey they eat, but if they are only eating hard sugar they probably do need some extra water in a desert environment. I don’t know about inches of rainfall vs supplemental water because it would depend on the population of the hive and how much of their diet comes from honey, and how much condensation (if any) accumulates in the morning. Why not just add an entrance feeder filled with water? That’s what I would do. The worst problem would be freezing (and breaking the jar) but some entrance feeders have plastic containers. Entrance feeders are not great for syrup because they can cause robbing, but for water they work great. You could also use a small jar feeder of water on top of the brood boxes enclosed in an empty super. Beekeeping Entrance Feeder


Is it okay to use hard sugar candy in a bait hive?



It’s okay to use but I don’t think it’s very attractive. Honey bees will eat hard candy when honey is in short supply, but it’s not their first choice.


I used something called piloncillo. It is a hardened brown sugar cane unprocessed. You can get them at Mexican stores. I had some activity before with just an old hive body, lemon grass oil, and old frames with comb. I put it in last night. This evening was a complete difference. The most activity by far. All over the hive, and now in my backyard sleeping on the side of my house, my grill, on the pavement, and the hive. How do I know if they have accepted the hive?



You know they’ve accepted the hive when the queen moves in and they start building comb and raising brood. Otherwise, they might just be hanging around for free food.


Should I open the hive and look for a queen? How long should I wait? Could I move the hive and install a queen?


Well, i opened the hive. A couple of little clusters. No brood or queen, low population. It looks like they are cleaning a bit. What if i installed a queen?



It doesn’t sound like you have enough bees there to warrant adding a queen. I don’t think it will work, just guessing.


I live in Denver, Co. We have been having some week-long cold spells with single digit temps at night.

I have two top bar hives. I am wondering how tightly to close up the hives during this weather especially with regards to moisture in the hive. Additionally, what about winter feeding in top-bar hives?

Thank you for your excellent website, the time you take for people like me, and thorough explanations as to the why bees and hives function as they do.




I’m not sure I can answer, mostly because all top-bar hives are so different. I like the bees to have some top ventilation so the moisture can move out, but my top-bar hive has a large enough “attic” that moisture never seems to be a problem. I just leave a small entrance on one end and a partially screened bottom during the cold weather. I have no top ventilation in it.

For winter feeding, I use candy cakes placed on the top bars. I spread the bars a little so the bees can get through and just lay the candy on top. Like I said, I have lots of attic space so there is room for everything.

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