ZomBee Questions and Answers
What is a zombee?
A zombee is a honey bee that has become a host for the phorid fly, Apocephalus borealis.
What is a zombie?
Apocephalus borealis is often called a zombie fly.
Why are the two words spelled differently?
I have no clue. Just remember that the infected bee is a zombee, while the fly that does the infecting is a zombie fly.
What is a host?
A host is an organism on which a parasite lives or feeds. In this example, the parasitic adult fly lands on a honey bee abdomen and pierces the exoskeleton with her ovipositor. The fly’s eggs pass through the ovipositor and into the body of the honey bee in just a few seconds. When the eggs hatch, the larvae munch on bee innards. Eventually the honey bee dies and the larvae chew their way to the outside, exiting the bee between the head and thorax.
Once outside the host (outside the honey bee) the larva crawls away from the bee to pupate. The pupa develops a protective envelope where it remains for 5 to 14 days while it transforms into an adult fly. In another 15 to 28 days, the new fly hatches, mates, and goes in search of a new honey bee host for her own eggs.
Why does the fly need a host?
Like a honey bee, the fly undergoes complete metamorphosis. This means there are four distinct life stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Growth is very rapid in the larval stage and much food is needed to support that growth.
Honey bee larva are fed royal jelly, honey, and pollen by the nurse bees. Many solitary bees, on the other hand, eat the pollen and nectar stashes that were collected by the mother bee. But rather than doing all that work, the female zombie fly lays her eggs inside a nice, juicy honey bee. This food (let’s call it a slurp-bee) provides all the nutrition the developing larva needs to grow and thrive.
Think of it this way, instead of bringing food to the baby, the fly brings the baby to the food.
What does the word “phorid” mean?
The family Phoridae is a large one, comprising more than 4000 species in 230 genera. Only the species, Apocephalus borealis, is known to cause zombee behavior in honey bees. “Phorid” is a general name for all the species in the Phoridae family.
What is zombee behavior?
Infection by zombie flies causes unusual behavior in honey bees. Specifically, it causes them to fly out of their hives at night. Once out of the hive, they fly towards a light source as many insects do. But unlike other insects at a light source, the infected honey bees become disoriented and lose their balance; eventually they die. What causes them to leave their hive at night is not known. It could be that the fly larvae interfere with the bee’s biological clock, or it could be something else entirely.
Do zombie flies only infect honey bees?
One of the interesting things about this parasite is that it is native to North America. In the past, it has been known to infect bumble bees and paper wasps. But it is apparent the species has “jumped ship” and now is infecting the non-native honey bee.
Will zombie flies kill my hive?
Probably not all by themselves, but infection may weaken a colony and make it more susceptible to other parasites, pathogens, and predators. In addition, the flies have been shown to carry pathogens such as Nosema ceranae and deformed-wing virus.
Are zombie flies active in my area?
Good question. Not much is known about the distribution of the zombie fly in North America nor the infection rate of honey bee colonies. You can help compile data on this parasite by joining ZomBeeWatch.org and becoming a ZomBee hunter. As a ZomBee hunter, you can set out a light trap and report your findings. You can also report honey bees that you find under a porch light or street lamp.
What is a light trap?
A light trap is just a lamp that you place outside at night. Beneath the light is a container to capture honey bees that die at the light source.
What should I do with honey bees that died at the light?
You collect your dead honey bees from the container and place them into a different resealable container, something like a mason jar works well. You wait 5 to 14 days, then look for any larvae that crawl out from the necks of the bees—right between the head and the thorax. You also look for pupae and then wait to see if they hatch into adult flies. All of your data and photos are fed into the ZomBeeWatch.org database.
I don’t have a fancy camera, just a cell phone.
That will work just fine, just focus in as close as possible.
So I just wait, and if I see something, I report?
No, and this is a big “NO.” Once you set up a trap, ZomBeeWatch.org wants to know if you captured honey bees OR NOT. And if you find dead honey bees in your trap, they want to know if larvae emerged from the bees OR NOT. These OR NOTs are just as important as the sightings.
Right now there are big holes in the North American map that contain no zombee information. ZombeeWatch.org doesn’t know if this means there are no zombie flies in those areas or if nobody looked for them. If people don’t report negative findings, valuable information is lost. So remember, “Nothing here!” is just as important as “Got one!”
How do I become a Zombee Hunter?
I urge all beekeepers to go to the ZomBeeWatch.org website and sign up. Their website has lots of information and photos, as well as instructions for constructing light traps and submitting your data. Don’t think of it as a chore—this is fun citizen science and a chance to learn even more about honey bees and beekeeping. So go on the hunt and have fun with it!